last update: July 19 2016



All data transfers should be verified with checksums.


Regardless of the operating system or file manager used (Windows Explorer, OSX's Finder), data transfers are generally not verified. Transfer errors do happen and stay undetected without a verification. Clips might be rendered unusable. Especially unstable consumer interfaces like thunderbolt, firewire and USB can produce transfer errors, but also defective drives, memory, processors or any other component in a computer can produce data corruption. One likely problems presents the fragile micro USB3 B-plug used in the small 2,5" external hard drives.


To detect errors programs like shotputpro/prerollpost, silverstack or yoyotta are ultilized on sets or for archiving.


These programs use checksums (or "hashes") to verify if the copy is identical to the source. A checksum is a short string of characters unique to one file. This string is computed by applying a mathematical function to the content of a file. Common functions are: md5, crc32, sha1, xxhash, blake2. The Checksum for a file is usually stored in simple text file next to it.


Example blake2-checksum: 46d53ca028b087187f2c7b1987eb22ca


A checksum is different, when only one bit of a file changed. Checksum functions are not perfect. A cleverly chosen or highly unlikely random change of bits might produce the same checksum. Checksum functions differ in calculation speed and security of the uniqueness (collision rate) of the resulting string.


md5 is the most used function, but limited to 300MB/s processing speed. The faster xxhash eliminates this bottleneck, when working with SSDs or RAID storage. When dealing with individual HDDs, xxhash will be slower than md5. Blake2 is certainly overkill in regard to collisions, but faster on a powerful systems than md5 as well.


The alternative to checksum verification is a simple bit comparison were both source and copy are read simultaneous and compared bit by bit. But nothing remains from such process. A higher-end production might need logs of transfers for insurgence purposes. Offload-programs produce logs and drop the respective checksums next to the transfered files or directories.


Checksums should travel from the camera medium, through post, to the archive.


Digital storage technologies, magnetic hard disk drives and video or data tape and flash (SSDs, thumb drives) suffer from data degradation. Keeping the original checksums along the material allows this decay to be detected through regular verification intervals and be recovered from other copies.







Windows Explorer and the OSX's Finder offer only the basic functions. A 3rd party file manager is a necessity for efficient data management. File managers like Totalcommander for Windows can queue up transfer operations, create checksums, verify and compare files, find duplicates, offer advanced search functions, batch rename files, allow constant overview over directory sizes and storage usage and other functions.


While Totalcommander can create checksums as well and use them for verification, an elegant program puristically called Checksum offers higher performance and advanced functionally incl. logging of the verification process.


Apple users usually use shotputpro on set. For OSX there are only a few and less developed options for universal file managers and checksum applications. A free checksum app for Mac is ff_md5drop.


Project data often travels through different system during a production. For example, the LTFS file system of the LTO tape technology does not understand all symbols allowed under Apple's OSX.


For interoperability between different programs and operating systems/file systems, is it good practice to choose simple file & directory names without symbols and language related characters.


Example card(reel) directory name: 001_2016_06_28_muenchen





SOFTWARE: totalcommander, checksum



 0 Switch camera medium to "write protected" when removing it from the camera


 1 TotalCommander: copy entire content of each camera medium (e.g. SSD, SD card, CFast) to

   a separate directory called the number of the card first:

   001_date_location, 002_date_location, ... to allow order when sorting a directory by name


 2 TotalCommander: select entire content of the camera medium, right click one directory, hold

   "shift" when selecting "create checksum" and the program Checksum starts with the options

   dialog. (Checksum must be integrated into the windows shell).


 3 Checksum: Select "one-file root checksum, type in the corresponding "output directory",

   select the Blake2 algorithm. Checksum is now computing the checksums...


 4 Checksum created one .hash file containing all calculated Blake2-checksums of all files of

   the camera medium.


   The content of the hash file of an FS7 XQD card looks like this:


    # made with checksum.. point-and-click hashing for windows (64-bit edition).

    # from



    258306a050a62c55e778d1a00ce435b24b8e3c177a7d560a025a421a482add3b *CUEUP.XML


    93f85b0b2887bc168a75e419db59123ad92b601a2fcdb8e42de5475dd1179f31 *DISCMETA.XML


    d984da6d030759cd86ffdf4059d156a8e6299d5f4b848bd59fa70d62d5adbb5f *MEDIAPRO.XML


    aa6d50f2c01f2dba68aaf21dabe9eafdd5e1ec7af535798ab0a721e98eae28ef *Clip\A003C005_150323UJ.MXF


    b8646c56af0674f74ddb3edec32f36a54e489101e56c18b0368dbb09a7b280df *Clip\A003C005_150323UJM01.XML


    9850454ab15d31495a626013555f7403922ddce3df22f125d77a1805d594fc0e *Clip\A003C005_150323UJR01.BIM


    e304f15edad4396e7f4553a40ff93d9c1f9e860126690e7af50be2de04ae27c4 *Clip\A003C006_1503235A.MXF


    222f31de5e5252ca8b8c63bc322ccc2ea916c054c69044849297e02c0c6e48e9 *Clip\A003C006_1503235AM01.XML


    0799816a46ba325444fe172a0111984a497fa14d6a6989861d0e3f2a5e6f2cb5 *Clip\A003C006_1503235AR01.BIM



 5 Verify: navigate to the destination folder of the copy and open the hash file to start

   the program Checksum


 6 Create at least 2 copies.





Backup at least daily.


Consider the use of 2,5" drives with an attached cable for a more stable connection. Such drives are offered by G-Tech, WD or Lacie. G-Tech is owned by HGST. It is common knowledge that HGST drives offer highest reliability, supported by the Backblaze statistics.


Use sealed 3,5" HGST helium drives + Thunderbolt or USB3 HDD docking station for high altitude locations.





used programs: totalcommander, checksum by corz


 0 If the project size exceeds the tape capacity, split the project in directories. For each

   tape one.


 1 Create one checksum file, like in example 1, for each of these directories


 2 Open LTFS Configuration to format and mount the tape by "Select an unused drive letter" and

   "Create Mapping".


 3 A new drive letter appears, drive is ready.


 4 Sort directories by name and copy data to tape incl. the checksum files.


 5 Verify data with checksums by opening.


 6 If verification is positive, reopen LTFS Configuration and click "Remove" and under

   "Cartridge utilities..." click "Eject" or press the eject button on the drive. Don't leave

   tapes in the drive.


 7 Repeat. Minimum are 2 copies.




Uncompressed master image sequences (DPX, TIF) take very long to transfer to tape, since they can consist of 100.000+ files. The RAR-Archiver for example, compresses them to about 50% into one file. RAR's feature "recovery record" with maybe 3% percent redundancy brings additional protection from corruption. Any random 3% damage of that archive can be corrected.


Before writing to tape, an archive should be tested after creation, either by checking "test archived files" during creation or after from RAR's program menu. Compression and creation of the recovery information of a 2k 10bit master can take a day.





used programs: Checksum by corz


 0 Mount tape / connect disk


 1 Open the hash file by holding shift, to start the options dialog of Checksum

   to customize logging. Or right click a folder with several checksum files, click "verify

   checksums" and checksum will find and verify automatically all checksum files it understands.


 2 Checksum verifies the tape automatically.


 3 Overwrite damaged files from other copies if necessary.





used programs: Checksum (win), HashTab (win), HashTab (osx), FF-md5drop (osx)


Over the Internet are the transfers that most likely can corrupt a file. Files should either travel with checksums or packed into rar or zip files. (An archive file, like rar or zip, includes a checksum and is used to test the integrity of the archive during decompression)


Prominent examples are WAV files of an audio mix or a mp4 for small festival. Any DCP has a built-in sha1 checksum, but since it consists of several files, it should be send in an archive as well.


WIN (Checksum)


 0 Click "checksum" in the context menu of the file to be transfered and an md5 is created.


OSX (FF-md5drop)


 0 Open FF-md5drop.

 1 Drop file into the program window.





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